September 2022 & Historical Basking Data
September 2022 Basking Narrative
September 2022 saw 64 basking occurrences, exactly the same number of basking appearances that we enjoyed in August and 7 more than appeared during last September.
We entered April a total of 26 basking occurrences ahead of 2021 but the drastic shortfalls in April (-25) and May (-43) plunged us into a 42-occurrence hole after 5 months of 2022. We were hopeful when June turned around a little bit (albeit slightly) to get us to only 39 appearances short of last year (407 to 368), but unfortunately July came up short by 12 and August by another 3. That put us 54 appearances short of 2021 but September again got us closer to last year by 8. Hence, three quarters of the way through 2022 we are 47 basking occurrences below 2021’s total, 568 to 615.
September saw only 1 day without any turtle on the beach, 5 less days than in August and 6 days less than last September.
During September there were 11 different named turtles that came ashore at least once. We also played host to two visiting turtles, one of which appeared twice and had also come ashore 3 times in August.
Our “top 3” baskers for September were Olivia-Dawn with 9 appearances and Kulihi and Makana tied with 8 appearances each.
Kulihi is our “most frequent” basker overall for the past 12 months with 96 basking occurrences over that period of time, but Makana, who has hauled out on 94 separate days over the same period, is now threatening to displace him from that honor in the near future.
For the 12-month period October 2021 through September 2022, turtles hauled out onto the beach 686 times on 287 days (78.6% of the days). The previous equivalent period for which we have statistics that we can report is September 2018 through August 2019, which saw 693 basking occurrences on 278 days (76.1% of the days).
August had multiple turtles out on 18 different occasions, with the greatest exodus from the water happening on the 27th when 5 different turtles hauled out.
The 13 different named honu that appeared on the beach at least once in September were Hiwahiwa, Olivia-Dawn, Punahele, Kekoa, Kulihi, JP, Kaimana, Kaipua, Makana, Maka Nui, and Kanoa.
Historical & Year End 2021 Basking Narrative
(see the “Historical” section of the Basking Charts for graphic representation of some of this info)
After a “time out” from being able to compare the year-to-year activities of our Honu `Ohana in 2020, a full year of statistics from 2021 will at least allow us to compare the current activity of our turtles back to 2019, the last year for which we have a full year of stats and the year during which we “officially” had the most basking occurrences since 2014, the last full year Kuhina had basked (107 times) at Laniakea (that year, Brutus’ last partial year, he also had basked 64 times in 4 months). Prior to 2014, yearly basking regularly had numbered over 1000 occurrences as Brutus normally basked over 200 times per year and Kuhina over 100.
The year 2019 had represented a major upturn in Honu basking (741 baskings) since Brutus’ and Kuhina’s departures as we experienced an increase in basking occurrences for the second year in a row. This was the first time in our reliable recorded history back to 2009 that this had happened! That record still stands (“officially”) as the COVID pandemic hit in 2020 and Laniakea Beach (as well as all other beaches on the island) were closed for all or part of 5 months (March, April, May, August and September – a total of 123 days), preventing Mālama i nā Honu from fulfilling not only its educational mission but also its monitoring and recording of basking activity during those periods of time. Hence, though it is entirely possible that basking numbers exceeded 741 in 2020 (we believe they did!), any records to actually confirm this do not exist.
We can speculate all we want (and we will do so directly) about the degree of basking that took place in 2020 and whether or not it would have resulted in a third straight year of increased on shore appearances of our turtles; pandemic beach closures for what amounted to over 1/3 (one third) of the days of the year prevent us from really knowing for sure.
So… let’s digress and relate some conjecture for a moment. For 2020, we have complete monthly records for 7 months (January, February, June, July, October, November and December). During those months, 417 basking occurrences were recorded by volunteers. If we look at the “unrecorded” months (March, April, May, August and September) and use the average basking occurrences of those months from the year before and the year after 2020, (i.e. 2019 and 2021) and add them to the 417, we get 806 basking occurrences! Considerably more than 741! If we were to use the same procedure for both the 5 years before 2020 and the 5 years before plus the 1 year after, we’d calculate that out to 764 and 769 respectively. Hence, it seems extremely likely that had we been able to record basking activity for all 12 months of 2020, that we would have indeed achieved an increase in basking occurrences for a third year in a row.
In 2021, 733 occurrences of basking took place at Laniakea, 717 by named members of the `Ohana and 16 by random “visitors” that stopped by as they passed through the area. That represents a -1.08% decrease (a net total of 8 less) compared to 2019 but still 11.4% more than appeared in 2018. We currently “track” 19 turtles (there were 20 in 2019), 14 that bask primarily on the “beach” (north side of Laniakea) and 5 that bask primarily on the “shelf” (south side of Laniakea near the lifeguard station). There have been exceptions to this “separation,” but they are few and far between.
Overall, 9 turtles basked more in 2021 than in 2019 and 11 basked less (yes, that’s 20 but one of the 2019 turtles is currently on hiatus at this writing!). Of those on the plus side, 6 were with us in 2019, 1 that had been on a long hiatus starting before 2019 (for over 2 1/2 years) and 2 new turtles that joined the `Ohana in 2021. Hao, formerly one of our more frequent baskers, returned in May after an absence of 31 months. More on her later. Kanoa joined the `Ohana in April (but with recorded appearances back to June of 2020) and Ho`omaka in September (based on reliable information from NOAA that this turtle has basked at Laniakea and other beaches for some period of time). One turtle, Missy, that basked in 2019 has not shown up since May of 2019 and is now included on our Hiatus list.
Since there are distinct differences in the basking habits of turtles that bask on the beach side of the venue and those that bask on the shelf side, we’ll next discuss some individual turtles’ 2021 activity based on where they bask. On the “beach” side of the venue, Hao, our returnee from a hiatus, registered the biggest increase in basking appearances over 2019 (when she didn’t appear on the beach at all) with 67. Kulihi basked 56 more times in 2021 than in 2019. Kanoa, in this honu’s first partial year of basking, hauled out 20 times. Hiwahiwa, Sapphire, Wooley-Bully, and newbie Ho`omaka also recorded increased activity during 2021. On the “shelf,” Keoki (17) and Hilahila (12) were the only turtles that increased their basking activity in 2021. (See the first 3 charts under the “Historical” section of charts for details on individual basking).
Our statistics also tell us about comings and goings and the duration of time on the beach. Looking at the `Ohana overall, of the turtles that haul out, more than half (58.3%) do so between 12:00 noon and 3:00 pm. This is the same time period during which most turtles hauled out back in 2019 (50.2%). When broken down between beach and shelf groups, the beach group matches the “overall” time period for exiting the water but the shelf group comes out most of the time beginning with the 11:00 hour and reaches 60.3% of its water exits by 2:00. These are also the same time periods for this breakdown recorded in 2019. (The 4th, 5th and 6th charts in the “Historical” section specifically details this analysis).
Another interesting aspect of turtle basking is to see more than one turtle out on the beach at the same time. Every month in 2021, we had at least one day with 5 or more turtles up, 7 months with 6 or more and one day in May with 9 turtles resting peacefully on the beach.
Individually, 4 turtles stayed overnight at least once 6 different times during the year (Wooley-Bully 2, Kulihi 2, Kekoa 1, & Hao 1).
In regard to the duration of time individuals spend on the beach, they ranged from 5 minutes for Hiwahiwa to 11 hours and 2 minutes for Kekoa (sunrise to sunset). The range of “average duration of time out of the water” for our “beach” turtles is 1:30 for Kanoa (in 20 appearances) to 4:55 for Kekoa (in 59 appearances). On the “shelf” they ranged from 47 minutes for Hilahila to 3:35 for “old timer” Keoki.
While we cannot reasonably monitor a turtle’s time on the beach after dark, we do measure how often a basking turtle stays past sunset. During 2021 there were 717 separate appearances by members of our `ohana and 16 unidentified turtles. Discounting the unidentifieds, there were 380 times that a turtle that had hauled out (no matter what time of the day) was still on the beach at sunset. That was more than half the time (52.9%) and very similar to 2019’s percentage (50.3%). At least one turtle was on the beach at sunset on 220 separate days. Even though over half of the turtles that haul out onto the beach are still around at sunset, nightfall DOES NOT trigger them to suddenly go back into the water. Mālama i nā Honu’s records show that less then 1.1 percent (that’s a single digit number) of the turtles on the beach at sunset return to the water before it gets dark!
During 2021, several noteworthy events took place. The most important was the return of Hao! No other `Ohana member has ever disappeared for over 2 ½ years and returned to the fold. Not only did she return, but in the process basked more times during the month, on 23 days, than she had ever basked in a month before. Her previous high was 20 times. In June, she continued her return tour with another 18 appearances, continued her prolific return with another 20 basking appearances in July and stayed around for 6 more beach visits through August 13th. Now she’s gone again! During her brief stay of 102 days, she was on the beach 87 different times on 67 different days and stayed to sunset 35 times. Hao has a history of going on hiatus. She was away for 9 months June 2016-February 2017 and for 14 months June 2017-July 2018. She’ll be back…we’ll be watching and waiting!
During July and August, we noted aberrant behavior in our O`hana overall, in that far fewer than the normal number of turtles began their basking activity during the morning hours. Over the past 10+ years, over one quarter (27%) of our basking turtles have appeared before noon. July of this year was an aberration, with only 9.5% of the honu coming ashore in the AM hours. This was the lowest percentage of morning baskers since September 2013 when only 7.9% emerged from the ocean in the morning. An exodus from the water of less than 10% in the morning hours has only happened 5 times over this period. The same thing happened again in August when only 5 turtles emerged from the ocean in the morning, amounting to only 7.5% of the turtles that basked. Only once, in September 2011, has a smaller percentage (6.0%) of our baskers been “morning turtles.” In addition, it is only the second time during this time period that less than 10% of our baskers avoided the morning hours for 2 months in a row. On both of those occasions, the percentages of morning exits over the 2-month period were almost identical (8.60% this year and 8.55% in August/September 2013). After a return to the “normal” range of morning water exits in September, the numbers again fell back in October but not under 10%. Since then, the numbers have again returned to a more normal range of over 20%.
December saw 16 days without any turtle on the beach. The 16 “turtle-less” days were the most we’ve suffered since January 2018 when there were 18 days without a turtle exiting the water. The worst basking months in Mālama i nā Honu’s recorded history (since 2009) were January and November of 2016, when 24 days of each month saw no basking activity (i.e. a turtle only came out of the water on 7 days in January and 6 days in November)! It should also be noted that even with the dearth of turtles appearing in these two months, 2016 was far from our worst basking year overall. In 2016 we saw over 150 more basking occurrences than our absolute worst year (2017) when a turtle only appeared on land 507 times.
For calendar year 2021, turtles hauled out onto the beach 733 times on 275 days (75.3% of the days). The previous equivalent period for which we have statistics that we can report is calendar year 2019, which saw 741 basking occurrences on 287 days (78.6% of the days).
Overall, even though total basking was down ever so slightly from prior years, 2021 was nevertheless a positive year for the Laniakea `Ohana. A turtle long on hiatus (Hao) returned for a short, but basking intensive, visit and two new Honu (Kanoa and Ho`omaka) were added to the `Ohana during the year. We’re anxious to see what 2022 has in store.